How AC DC Power Adapters Work?

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AC (Alternating Current) and DC (Direct Current) are two different types of electric current. AC , alternates its direction periodically, forming a sinusoidal waveform. DC maintains a constant flow of current in one direction.

Power adapter is to convert the 100-240v AC voltage through the transformer, rectify, and filter the output of safe lower voltage to power our equipment.AC to DC power supplies is a device converts the varying voltage and frequency of alternating current to a stable and suitable direct current.


How Do AC/DC Adapters Work?

Ac input:The power adapter usually connects AC power to a power outlet through a plug or AC cable.

Input filtering: The power adapter uses an input filter to filter out high-frequency noise and other interference from the input power supply.

Transformer: The AC input voltage is fed through a transformer, which increases or decreases its voltage level according to the desired output . The transformer consists of two coils, one is an input coil and the other is an output coil. The input coil is usually composed of a thicker coil, while the output coil is composed of a thinner coil. By changing the number of coils in the input and output coils and the way the coils are wound, the ratio between the input and output voltages can be changed. This transformed AC voltage then enters a rectifier circuit.

Rectifier: The alternating current output of the transformer needs to be converted to direct current before it can be used by electronic devices. For this purpose, the power adapter uses a rectifier to convert alternating current to direct current. Rectifier is usually implemented by diode bridge rectifier circuit.

Filtering: The rectified waveform still contains ripples, or fluctuations, which need to be smoothed out for a stable DC output. In order to ensure the steady quality of the output DC, the power adapter uses a filter capacitor to filter out the ripple.

Voltage regulator: The stability of the output voltage is ensured by utilizing a voltage regulator in the power adapter. It controls the output voltage magnitude, adjusting the current flow as necessary to maintain a constant output voltage.

Output: The power adapter outputs stable direct current to the power cord connected to the device for use by the device . AC-DC power adapters also incorporate various protection and safety features to prevent damage to connected devices and make sure user safety.

The power adapter converts the input AC into a stable DC voltage, such as 12v 15v 24v 48v, to meet the power supply requirements of electronic devices through input filtering, transformer, rectification, filtering and voltage regulation.

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